1. Getting Started with Java

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Exam Preparation

The Java course will help you prepare for these certifications:

  • Oracle Certified Java Associate – Exam 1Z0-803

  • Oracle Certified Java Professional – Exam 1Z0-804

Overview of this Java Tutorial

Estimated Time – 0.5 Hours

  1. Hello Java
  2. Java Timeline
    • Java first appeared in 1996
      • Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.0
      • Contained 6 packages
      • Original goal was to create platform-agnostic apps for mobile devices
      • In practice, many organizations used Java to create applets
    • Sun reorganized their Java products in 1999
      • Java 2 Standard Edition (J2SE)
      • Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE)
      • Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME)
    • There have been many subsequent upgrades to the language and libraries!
  3. Java vs. Other Languages
    • Java vs. C++
      • Java syntax is very similar to C++ (not coincidental)
      • Java compiles to platform-neutral byte codes that run on a Java Virtual Machine (JVM), whereas C++ compiles to platform-specific machine instructions
      • Java handles memory management via garbage collection, whereas C++ makes you manage memory yourself
      • Java has an extensive and rich class library, whereas the C++ standard class library is much more limited (until C++11 recently)
      • Java doesn’t run as quickly (or as leanly) as C++
    • Java vs. C#
      • Java syntax is very similar to C# (again, this is no coincidence!)
      • In fact, Java and C# are quite comparable in many aspects:
  4. What can you do with Java SE?
    • You can use Java SE to:
      • Create standalone Java applications
      • Create Windows-based applications
      • Manipulate text files, binary files, and XML data
      • Access databases, via Java Database Connectivity (JDBC)
      • Create multithreaded applications
      • Create client-server applications, using Remote Method Invocation (RMI)
      • Etc…
  5. What can you do with Java EE?
    • Going further, you can use Java EE to create:
      • Web applications, using servlets, JavaServer Pages (JSPs), and Java Server Faces (JSF)
      • Web services
      • Middle-tier session beans, using Enterprise JavaBeans (EJBs)
      • Data-access entity beans, using the Java Persistence API (JPA)
      • Message-queueing applications, using the Java Message Service (JMS)
      • Etc…

Tutorial 1: Installing and using Java SE

  1. Downloading Java SE
    • Download Java SE (details vary depending on version) :
      • https://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/downloads/index.html
      • T1P1

  2. Installing Java SE
    • Select and run the appropriate JDK installation
      • E.g. jdk-7u51-windows-x64.exe
    • Accept all defaults during installation
    • T1P2

  3. Java SE Folder Structure
    • Default installation folder for Java SE (v1.7, update xx):
      • C:\Program Files\Java\jdk1.7.0_xx
    • Folder structure:
    • T1P3

  4. Minimalistic Development
    • Define a public Java class
      • Filename must be classname.java
        public class MyFirstApp {
         public static void main(String[] args) {
          System.out.println("Hello world");
    • Compile the class from the command line
      • Using the Java compiler, javac.exe
      • Note, javac.exe must be on the path
      • Below will create MyFirstApp.class
      • javac MyFirstApp.java

    • Run the class from the command line
      • Via the JVM, java.exe
      • Note, java.exe must be on the path
      • You specify the classname without the .class extension
      • java MyFirstApp
        Hello world

JAR files

  1. Overview of JAR Files
    • In a real Java application, you’ll have lots of Java classes
      • Each class is compiled to a separate .class file
    • It’s common to bundle up all the classes etc… into a JAR file
      • Typically use the .jar file extension
      • The Java Archive (JAR) file format is a zip-file really
    • You can manage JAR files by using the jar.exe tool from the command line
      • Part of the JDK
  2. How to Create a JAR File
    • To create a JAR file:
      jar cfm jar-file-name manifest-file-name input-file(s)
    • Here’s a description of the options:
      • c means you want to create a JAR file
      • f means you want the output to go to a file (rather than STDOUT)
      • m means you want to include a manifest file (see later)
    • And here’s a description of the file names:
      • jar-file-name is the name of the JAR file you want to create
      • manifest-file-name is the name of the manifest file (see later)
      • input-file(s) is a list of files to include in the JAR file
  3. Example: Java Files
    • Let’s see how to create a JAR file containing 2 Java classes
      • See the DemoGettingStarted folder
    • Here’s the “main” Java class for the application:
      public class MyProg {
       public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.println("Hello from my program.");
        System.out.println("Goodbye from my program.");
    • View code file.
    • And here’s a “helper” Java class for the application:
      public class MyHelper {
       public static void displayDateTime() {
        System.out.println("It is now " + new java.util.Date());
    • View code file.
  4. Example: Specifying the Entry Point
    • If you have an application bundled in a JAR file, you need some way to indicate which class file is the entry point
      • You provide this information in a “manifest file”
      • Set the Main-Class property to the name of the main class
        Main-Class: MyProg
    • Notes:
      • You must specify the fully-qualified name of the class (including its package name – see later for more info about packages)
      • The manifest file must end in a new line or carriage return
  5. Example: Creating the JAR File
    • First, compile the Java classes:
      javac MyProg.java MyHelper.java
    • Then create a JAR file containing the .class files and the manifest file:
      jar cfm MyFirstJarFile.jar manifest.txt MyProg.class MyHelper.class
  6. How to Run a JAR’d Application
    • To run a JAR’d application:
      • Run java.exe to launch the Java Virtual Machine
      • Use the -jar option to indicate you want to run a JAR file
      • The JVM consults the manifest file to determine the main class
        java -jar MyFirstJarFile.jar
        Hello from my program.
        It is now Mon Feb 17 10:54:07 2014
        Goodbye from my program.

Using an IDE

  1. What Java IDE‘s are out there?
    • Popular Java IDEs:
      • Eclipse (we’ll be using this)
      • Oracle JDeveloper
      • IBM WebSphere Application Developer
      • NetBeans
      • Etc…
  2. Downloading and Installing Eclipse
    • In a browser window:
      • Browse to https://www.eclipse.org/downloads
      • Click the Eclipse IDE for Java Developers product
    • In the next Web page:
      • Click the appropriate download link for your platform, e.g. Windows 64-bit
      • The download is a simple zip file
    • Unzip the Eclipse zip file
      • To the C:\ destination folder
      • Creates a folder named C:\eclipse
  3. Starting Eclipse
    • Start Eclipse
      • i.e. run c:\eclipse\eclipse.exe
    • Eclipse prompts you for a workspace
      • The workspace is a folder that will contain all your Java projects
      • Specify C:\JavaWorkspace
      • T1P4

  4. Loading Existing Projects
    • You can load existing projects into the workspace
    • T1P5

  5. Creating a Java Project
    • You can create a new Java project
    • T1P6

  6. Adding a Class
    • You can add a new class to your project
    • T1P7

  7. Implementing the Class
    • Implement the class, e.g:
      package mypackage;
      public class MyClass {
       public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.println("Eclipse says Hello!");
    • View code file.
  8. Running the Class
    • Run the class and see the output in the console window
    • T1P8

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